According to the limited association between gene control and metabolic imbalance, researchers begin to focus on epigenetic control in response to environmental stimulation.
Although the mechanisms of epigenetic gene regulation are not fully understood, some studies have indicated the involvement of DNA methylation in diabetes that the reduced expression of PPARGC1A (PGC1α) in the vastus lateralis muscle of diabetic individuals is associated with elevated promoter methylation in both a CpG and non-CpG context. In rats, high-fat feeding resulted in decreased expression of Pklr and Gck by increased methylation of their promoters. In Apoe-deficient mice, high-fat feeding is also found to change lysine trimethylation of histone 3 in the PPARα-network. Both above demonstrate that nutrition directly affects metabolism on the level of epigenetic gene regulation, including DNA methylation and histone modifications. Subsequent experiments suggest that these epigenetic modulations are stable to be transmitted to following generations. Thus, offsprings of obese parents may also produce metabolic imbalance with great probability, such obesity and diabetes.
While nutritional and exercise interventions are shown to counteract acquired epigenomic patterns to normalize expression of these genes. Therefore, for our healthy future, let’s develop good lifestyle starting from the rich breakfast~
A picture from keiyamazaki on instagram.