Epigenetics, as is known, is a relatively new scientific field studying the process by which genetic information is translated into the substance and behavior of an organism. With further research, Epigenetics is found to play a potential role in many aspects, including Cancer treatment, energy homeostasis, morphogenesis, etc.
With the number of different criminal acts increasing rapidly, detection and analysis of biological evidence is crucial for crime scene reconstruction. It is demonstrated that Epigenetics plays a critical role in forensic study, and helps the forensic geneticists find more information from the biological evidences.
Currently, the main methods are to study DNA methylation in body fluid identification and other DNA methylation applications. Among other applications of DNA methylation, age determination of the donor of biological evidence, analysis of the parent-of-origin specific DNA methylation markers at imprinted loci for parentage testing and personal identification, differentiation between monozygotic twins due to their different DNA methylation patterns, artificial DNA detection and analyses of DNA methylation patterns in the promoter regions of circadian clock genes are the most important ones. In order to better use for criminal investigation, there are still a lot of open chapters in DNA methylation research that need to be closed before its final implementation in routine forensic casework.